Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) – The Science behind it

Artificial Intelligence (AI), a rapidly growing field of computer science, focuses on the development of intelligent machines. Basically, machines and systems that can perform tasks that traditionally require humans. And undoubtedly, how much faster and accurately AI is doing those tasks, is mind-blowing. But what is AI, actually? How does it work? What skills does AI have that beat humans? 

This blog caters to all these questions specifically designed for students and laymen. It aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of AI, its various fields, types, and implementation methods. 

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI) ? 

Artificial Intelligence, or AI, involves studying and analyzing the patterns of the human brain along with cognitive processes to develop intelligent software and systems. In simplified terms, these systems are designed to perform tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as understanding, learning, and decision-making. The ultimate goal of AI is to create machines capable of mimicking human-like intelligence and behavior but responding at a much faster rate. 

Historical Journey of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an amazing journey which started as fictional stories. As a matter of fact, it all started with the introduction of words like “Robot” and “Robotics” in plays and novels. And, when it comes to bringing imaginations into the world of reality, human intelligence in no less wonder than an artificial intelligence (AI). Here below, is a comprehensive timeline of how Artificial Intelligence (AI) started and where it is now?

Historical Timeline of Artificial Intelligence (AI) from 1923 till 2020
History of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Fields in Artificial Intelligence (Ways of implementing) 

  1. Machine Learning (ML) 
  2. Deep Learning (DL) 
  3. Natural Language Processing (NLP) 
  4. Expert Systems 
  5. Fuzzy Logic 

1. Machine Learning (ML):

Machine Learning involves teaching computers to learn from data and improve performance without explicit programming. It utilizes statistical methods and algorithms to analyze data, establish relationships, and make predictions or classifications. Also, ML algorithms can be supervised (learning from past data) or unsupervised (drawing inferences from data). 

2. Deep Learning:

Deep Learning, a subset of ML, utilizes multi-layered neural networks for tasks such as object detection and language translation. It enables the analysis of complex data and controls applications such as driverless cars and facial recognition. 

3. Natural Language Processing (NLP):

NLP employs neural networks to build predictive models for tasks like image understanding, human learning, and computer speech. To clarify, its goal is to understand and process human language, facilitating applications like language translation and voice assistants. 

4. Expert Systems:

Expert Systems are reliable computer-based decision-making systems that utilize facts and an inquisitive approach to crack complex problems. In other words, expert systems leverage domain-specific knowledge and are designed to tackle complicated issues with a high level of intelligence. 

5. Fuzzy Logic:

Fuzzy Logic is a logic form that deals with partial truth, assigning truth values between 0 and 1. Particularly, it handles situations where the truth or falsehood of a statement is uncertain or ambiguous in real-life scenarios.

What is an AI algorithm? 

“What exactly is an AI algorithm?” you may wonder. In simple terms, “AI algorithms” refers to “a set of instructions to follow in calculations or other operations.” Thus, at its core, an AI algorithm is the programming that provides a computer with directions in learning to function independently. 

Of course, these AI algorithms are much more complicated than how it seems or what one comes across in algebra classes. To clarify, the fields mentioned above deal with various algorithms suited to specific use cases. However, most commonly known are. 

  1. Decision Trees 
  2. Random Forests 
  3. Support Vector Machines (SVM) 
  4. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) 
  5. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) 
  6. Long Short-Term Memory Networks (LSTMs) 
  7. Hidden Markov Model 

They involve complex sets of rules that drive AI programs, determining their steps and their capacity to acquire knowledge. Undoubtedly, without these algorithms, AI would not have existed. 

Types of Artificial Intelligence (AI) 

There are several types of AI, each serving specific purposes. However, following are most commonly known types

  1. Narrow AI 
  2. General AI 
  3. Rule-based AI
  4. Decision tree AI
  5. Super AI 
  6. Robot Intelligence 

1. Narrow Artificial Intelligence (AI):

This type of AI is designed to accomplish specific tasks intelligently, such as image recognition or game playing. Specifically, it focuses on excelling in one area. 

2. General Artificial Intelligence(AI):

General AI refers to versatile intelligence that can handle various intellectual tasks, similar to humans. Basically, it can adapt to different situations and learn new things. 

3. Rule-based AI:

Rule-based AI follows a set of predetermined rules to process input data and generate corresponding outputs. Contrarily, it operates based on predefined instructions. 

4. Decision tree AI:

Decision tree AI uses predetermined rules to make decisions but allows for branching and considering different options. So, it can handle more complex scenarios. 

5. Super Artificial Intelligence (AI):

Super AI is designed to understand human language and respond naturally, enabling conversations or providing information. 

6. Robot Intelligence:

This type of AI enables robots to possess advanced cognitive abilities, including reasoning, planning, and learning. Provided that, it allows them to navigate and interact intelligently with the world around them. 

While AI can be categorized into narrow AI (specialized tasks) and general AI (human-like capabilities), the current focus is primarily on narrow AI. However, researchers aspire for machine learning to eventually achieve general AI, where machines can perform tasks like humans and beyond. 

AI cognitive skills 

Evidently following are the cognitive skills that AI has. 

  1. Learning 
  2. Reasoning 
  3. Self-Correction 
  4. Logical reasoning 
  5. Knowledge Representation 
  6. Planning and Navigation 
  7. Natural Language Processing 
  8. Perception 
  9. Emergent Intelligence 

1. Learning: AI learns by acquiring information and the rules necessary to utilize that information effectively. 

2. Reasoning: Besides Learning capability, AI uses the acquired information and rules to draw logical and approximate conclusions. 

3. Self-Correction: Surprisingly, AI continuously fine-tunes its algorithms to ensure accurate results and improve over time. In addition to these cognitive skills, researchers and programmers have expanded the goals of AI to include: 

4. Logical Reasoning: AI programs can perform complex tasks, such as defeating a world chess champion, as demonstrated by IBM’s Deep Blue defeating Garry Kasparov in 1996. 

5. Knowledge Representation: Programming languages like Smalltalk enable a new world of computing, where computers and humans work together symbiotically. 

6. Planning and Navigation: AI enables computers to plan routes and navigate, such as Google’s self-driving cars. 

7. Natural Language Processing: AI helps computers understand and process human language, such as ChatGPT. 

8. Perception: AI enables computers to interact with the world through senses like sight, hearing, touch, and smell. For example, the ability of machines to use input data from sensors like cameras, LiDAR, RADAR, microphones, wireless signals, tactile sensors, etc.

9. Emergent Intelligence: This refers to intelligence that arises naturally from AI’s various features, aiming to achieve emotional intelligence and moral reasoning. To clarify, such AI-enabled devices can perform tasks like speech recognition, object detection, problem-solving, learning from data, and planning future tests. 


In conclusion, this blog aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Artificial Intelligence (AI). It explored the definition of AI, its history, various fields of implementation (including Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Natural Language Processing, Expert Systems, and Fuzzy Logic), and different types of AI. The blog also discussed AI algorithms, highlighting their significance in driving AI programs and enabling machines to acquire knowledge. Lastly, it touched upon the cognitive skills of AI, such as learning, reasoning, self-correction, and perception, showcasing the remarkable capabilities of AI in mimicking human-like intelligence. 

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